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Late Breaking Website News!
Updated June 1, 2016

Check here for important announcements and other Shroud of Turin Website news. This page will be updated whenever new page additions, articles and other resources are added to the site. Each item carries a posting date indicating when it first went online. The most recent update appears at the top of the page. As you scroll down through the page, you can review the items that were added this year in chronological order. You should find this an excellent way to sample the evolving content of this website. And you can also view every previous year's Website News pages at the links below:

Archived Website News pages: 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996

Spring Update: June 1, 2016

The King Umberto II Holy Shroud Medal

Our Spring Update is a little late getting online due to my rather hectic travel and lecture schedule earlier this year. Consequently, a lot of important material has accumulated making this update another really large one. Our lead story is news of the creation of a new international Shroud organization, F.I.D.E.S., along with the King Umberto II Holy Shroud Medal, a new award bestowed jointly by the Royal Houses of Italy and Portugal for merit in promotion of devotion, science and research of the Shroud. This update also brings you fourteen more issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, including Issue 50, which was published in December 1988 and presented comments on the radiocarbon dating by many noted Shroud scholars and researchers. Also included is an illustrated feature article on the recent public exhibition of the Tunic of Argenteuil, along with many new articles, papers and books, links to new videos, audios and websites and much more. So let's get started!

Here is the Update Table of Contents:

Here is a link to our recent Special Update:

The King Umberto II Holy Shroud Medal

H.R.H. Prince D. Duarte Pio de Bragança, Duke of Bragança (left)
H.R.H. Prince Emanuel Filiberto di Savoia, Prince of Venice
Photograph ©2016 Ourem Castle Information Centre

After nearly 40 years of involvement with Shroud research and education, I have gotten used to encountering the unexpected, but I was not prepared for the e-mail I received this past April from my dear friend Carlos Evaristo in Portugal. Carlos, who works for the Royal House of Portugal in Fatima, is a world renown relic expert and the curator of the museum holding the largest collection of relics in the world, the Royal Lipsanotheca of Portugal. He wrote to inform me that the Royal Houses of Savoy (Italy) and Bragança (Portugal) had created a new organization named F.I.D.E.S. (FEDERAÇÃO INTERNACIONAL DE ESTUDOS SINDONOLÓGICOS) or International Federation of Shroud Researchers and with it, a new award named the King Umberto II Holy Shroud Medal, to be presented for merit in promotion of devotion, science and research of the Shroud. He went on to state that I had been chosen to receive one of the first eight medals for my participation on the STURP team, the creation of this website and the founding of STERA, Inc. I have to admit that receiving a medal from the Royal Houses of Italy and Portugal was beyond anything I ever imagined. I was very surprised and deeply honored to be included!

That is because Carlos also provided me with a list of the seven other recipients who would be receiving this prestigious award and I found that I was in amazingly good company, with such noted Shroud scholars as Prof. Bruno Barberis (President of the International Centre of Sindonology in Turin) , the late Dr. Frederick Zugibe (Forensic Pathologist and President of the Centre for Religious Research Fátima and of ASSIST), Dr. John Jackson (Founder and President of STURP / Colorado Shroud Centre), Fernando Lagrifa Fernandes (Founder and President of the Centro Português de Sindonologia), José-Delfín Villalaín-Blanco (Honorary President of the Centro Español de Sindonologia), Jorge-Manuel Rodriguez-Almenar (President of the Centro Español de Sindonologia) and Carlos Evaristo (President of the Real Lipsanotheca / Apostolate for Holy Relics). I was truly overwhelmed to be included on such an illustrious list but quickly realized that I would regretfully not be able to attend the conference and award ceremony in Fatima on 2 May 2016. Fortunately, my dear friend Catherine Zugibe, Fred Zugibe's widow, and their grandson, Thomas Blaber would be attending to accept Fred's award posthumously and Thomas graciously agreed to accept the award on my behalf.

Since I could not attend myself, I asked Carlos if he could prepare an article about F.I.D.E.S. and the King Umberto II Holy Shroud Medal for us, along with a report on the award ceremony. He responded promptly with an in depth article titled, F.I.D.E.S., which explains the purpose of the organization and the reason for the creation of the medal. He also sent a large selection of photographs, some of which I have included in the article, along with a number of links to YouTube videos of the conference and award ceremony, which I have included below and also added at the end of his article. My deepest gratitude and sincerest thanks to both Royal Highnesses for the prestigious award they bestowed on all of us. I am sure we will all redouble our efforts to live up to this great honor.

Here are links to some YouTube videos of the conference, award ceremony and related events: [Editor's Note: For several days most of the video links below were blocked. We found out it was copyright issues with the music used that was causing the blockage, so those music tracks have been replaced or removed from the clips and they are all now readily available].

Posted June 1, 2016
Updated June 3, 2016

Fourteen More Issues Added to Rex Morgan's Shroud News Archive

Shroud News

We are very pleased to present the next fourteen issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News in today's update, which includes Issue #37, October 1986 through Issue #50, December 1988. I should note that Issue #50 is the largest issue to date and three times larger than any of its predecessors at a full 68 pages. These particular issues cover the timeframe that includes the radiocarbon dating of the Shroud and you will find a wealth of important and fascinating comments by a Who's Who of Shroud scholars in the 1988 issues, including such esteemed researchers as Ian Wilson, William Meacham, Prof. Dan Scavone, Fr. Peter Rinaldi, Dorothy Crispino, Frank Tribbe, Eugenia Nitowski, Remi Van Haelst, Alan Whanger and many more. I consider these issues a "must read" for anyone interested in this important era of Shroud history. Our sincerest thanks to Stephen Jones for his extraordinary effort in scanning and optical character recognition of every page, Ian Wilson for providing the original issues and valuable input and of course, to Rex Morgan for his gracious permission to reprint them here on We are nearing the half-way mark of issues and will continue to archive them until the complete 118 issue collection is online.

Posted June 1, 2016

In Memoriam

Marie-Claire van Oosterwyck-Gastuche

It is my sad duty to report the passing of Dr. Marie-Claire van Oosterwyck-Gastuche, at her home on April 6, 2016. Marie-Claire was a noted French Shroud scholar who held a PhD in Physical Chemistry, was the author of the book, Le radiocarbone face au Linceul de Turin (Radiocarbon facing the Shroud of Turin) and Superintendent of the Royal Museum of Central Africa, in Belgium. Marie-Claire was an outspoken critic of the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud and spent many years writing and lecturiing on that topic. Although she was less well known in the United States than in Europe, her contributions were very important as she publicly challenged the results of the 1988 dating of the Shroud from a scientific point of view. We last saw her here in America at the 2001 Dallas Shroud conference where she presented a paper titled, "Proof of the Unreliability of the C-14 Medieval Age Obtained for the Turin Shroud" and participated in a Question and Answer Session regarding the C14 dating of the Shroud with Dr. William Meacham. Her work has been referenced by many Shroud scholars around the world, as is evidenced by the more than 80 references to her and her work via the Website Search Engine on We extend our deepest sympathies to her family and friends for their loss. Rest in peace Marie-Claire.


In Memoriam

Dr. Michael Clift
1928 - 2016

It is with great sadness that I must also report the passing of Dr. Michael Clift, who served as General Secretary of the British Society for the Turin Shroud (BSTS) for more than two decades. Although I never had the privilege of meeting him personally, his name is well known to anyone who read the BSTS Newsletter over the years. Since Ian Wilson worked with Dr. Clift for many years and knew him personally, he graciously agreed to write an obituary for us, with the generous assistance of Dr. Clift's nephew Bruce Barnfield, which we are including as part of this memorial. You can read it at this link: Dr. Michael Clift. We extend our deepest sympathies and condolences to his family and friends. Rest in Peace doctor and thank you for your many contributions to Shroud research.

Posted June 1, 2016

The Tunic of Argenteuil Public Exhibition: An Illustrated Report by Jostein Andreassen

The Tunic of Argenteuil Public Exhibition: An Illustrated Report by Jostein Andreassen
Photograph ©2016 Oddvar Søvik

Our good friend Jostein Andreassen, one of the most preeminent Shroud scholars in Norway and author of one of the first books on the Shroud written in the Norwegian language, Likkledet I Torino - Et tegn for var tid (The Shroud of Turin - A Sign of Our Times), contacted us recently to let us know he had attended the public exhibition of the Tunic of Argenteuil in France and offered to write an article and share it with us here on Of course, I immediately accepted his offer and the result is his beautifully illustrated report titled, 200,000 to the Tunic of Argenteuil. The excellent photographs included with the article are by his friend, Oddvar Søvik, who has served as a priest in Norway for many years, often giving lectures about the Shroud of Turin, and is also one of the leaders of "Torinokledet," an organization with the purpose of educating the Norwegian people about the Shroud (and the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Tunic of Argenteuil), and publishing books about these subjects. You can find their organization on the Internet at (in Norwegian). Our thanks to Jostein and Oddvar for their excellent work and contributions!

Posted June 1, 2016

Recently Published Papers and Articles

Five Reasons Why Some Christians Are Shroud Skeptics by Barrie Schwortz
Reprinted from The City published by Houston Baptist University

Another large number of papers and articles have been published since our January website update covering a broad range of Shroud related topics and we are including as many as possible here today. Also included are several older papers from the archives that you might find interesting. All have also been permanently archived on the Scientific Papers & Articles page (alphabetically by title) and the Website Library page (alphabetically by author).

Posted June 1, 2016

Recently Published Books

Recently Published Books

A few new Shroud related books have been published in recent months. We are listing them here but have also permanently archived them all on the Shroud of Turin Booklist page (alphabetically by author). To make it easy to find the new additions, we have annotated each new listing with "(Added 1 June 2016)" so simply search for that phrase on the page.

The Tradition of the Image of Edessa by Mark Guscin

This book is based on Mark Guscin's recently completed doctoral thesis. (Congratulations Dr. Guscin)! Here is a description from the publisher's website:

"The Image of Edessa was an image of Christ, which, according to tradition, was of miraculous origin. It was taken from Edessa to Constantinople in 944, and disappeared from known history in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. It generated, however, a vast amount of literature and hundreds of copies in churches all over the Byzantine world. This book is a study of the literature, paintings, icons and other aspects related to the Image of Edessa. It examines how it was used as a tool to express Christ’s humanity and for various other purposes, and how some of the related literature became completely decontextualised and used as a magical charm, especially in the West."

Paperback: 270 pages
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing (February 1, 2016)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1-4438-8581-9
ISBN-13: 978-1-4438-8581-2

Pietro, Giuseppe e il Lenzuolo (Peter, Joseph and the Sheet) from the presentation of Rafael Pascual L.C. by Walter Memmolo and Angelo R. Memmolo

Here is a brief description via online translation:

"The authors of this volume advance hypotheses on the recovery of the shroud from the tomb and on its custody after the crucifixion. The story, however, is not limited to this; with narrative flashbacks between Rome, where the evangelizing mission of Peter originates in 42, and Jerusalem, where Joseph of Arimathea is the protagonist of the events of the burial, the deposition and the safekeeping of the sacred cloth, the reading of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus is so timely revived that the reader cannot help but feel like a participant and an active spectator."

Paperback: 96 pages
Publisher: Gangemi Editore (2016)
Language: Italian
ISBN-13: 9788849232189

Posted June 1, 2016

Shroud Videos and Audios

Shroud Videos and Audios
Jesus Alive Again - DVD by Ray Downing

A number of new Shroud related videos and audios have become available in recent months and we are including links to many of them here today. Some are available on DVD and others are freely available online:

Jesus Alive Again by Ray Downing was released this past Easter on DVD. According to Ray, "It covers the period from the Last Supper to the Ascension, using only words from the evangelists as the narration. The imagery features the 3D "Real Face of Jesus" computer graphics model based on the Shroud." Here is a brief description of the program from Ray's website, where you can also view a trailer of the program:

"Jesus Alive Again is a film about the voices of people 2000 years ago telling us what they saw during the first Easter. With 3D computer graphics, beautiful imagery, music, and words from the gospels, we go back in time to Palestine, 33 A.D. Directed and produced by Emmy winner artist Ray Downing."

The Shroud of Turin - The official documenting photographer tells the inside story is a YouTube video of a presentation by Barrie Schwortz that runs 1:19:00 and was taped on February 17, 2016 at Padre Serra Catholic Church in Camarillo, California as part of Fr. Dave Heney's University Series™, an annual multi-parish adult education program held in Southern California each year during the Lenten season. The videotape was produced, edited and posted online by James Malloy.

Test the Shroud by Mark Antonacci is a two hour, audio only (mp3) podcast interview by Nick Peters that originally aired February 13, 2016 on Deeper Waters. In the interview, Mark discusses his theories on the Shroud and his campaign to encourage future testing of the cloth. Deeper Waters Christian Ministries is an organization founded by Nick and Allie Peters.

Posted June 1, 2016

New From the Ariel Agemian Collection

New From the Ariel Agemian Collection

Most people in the Shroud world are familiar with the iconic painting of Jesus based on the Shroud (see above) that was created in 1935 by Armenian artist and writer, Ariel Agemian. What most people don't know is that the artist's daughter, Annig Agemian Raley, has taken up the task of preserving and promoting her father's work and has built a website specifically for that purpose. In recent years Annig has created new prints and other items bearing her father's artworks so that everyone can own and appreciate them. Over the years, we have received many requests for certain items (like prayer cards) bearing the Shroud's image, but STERA, Inc. is not authorized or chartered to create religious items. Fortunately, Annig has answered the call by creating just such materials from her father's works and they are now readily available on her website: Ariel Agemian K.S.G.

Posted June 1, 2016

Frequently Asked Questions Page Now Available in Polish Language

Frequently Asked Questions Page Now Available in Polish Language (Jezyku polskim)

We are very grateful to Jan Pietluch, who recently wrote us from Poland and volunteered to translate some of our web pages into the Polish language. I suggested we start with the Frequently Asked Questions page and the Polish language translation is now available, both from the FAQ page itself and from the Main Menu page as well. We look forward to receiving more Polish translations in the future and wish to thank Jan for the excellent work. I know it will be truly appreciated by our Polish speaking visitors.

Posted June 1, 2016

The Shroud in the Media

The Shroud in the Media

A number of recent news stories generated considerable interest in the Shroud. Here are some of the most interesting ones:

Shroud shows the reality of the Passion - NZ Catholic - May 26. 2016 - Here is an excerpt from the article:

"The Shroud of Turin shows the reality of the Passion, death and Resurrection of Christ, according to Shroud presenter James Bertrand. Mr Bertrand, a student of and presenter about the Shroud for the past 30 years, spoke to attendees at the Auckland Eucharistic Convention at the AMI Netball Centre in Takapuna on April 3. Mr Bertrand said he first became interested in the Shroud when he read about Dr John Jackson’s findings in National Geographic in 1980."

The Shroud of Turin, Authenticated Again by Myra Adams - National Review - April 16. 2016 - Here is an excerpt from the article:

"A new study released last week included new evidence that links and further authenticates two holy relics that millions of Christians believe offer physical proof of the crucifixion, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. But before we explore the research and the relics, let us recall a New Testament passage concerning faith in Christ and the need for physical evidence. I mean the familiar story of “doubting Thomas” (John 20:24–29)."

New Study: The Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo Covered the Same Person - - April 11. 2016 - Here is an excerpt from the article:

"The Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo “almost certainly covered the cadaver of the same person.” This is the conclusion from an investigation that has compared the two relics using forensics and geometry. The research was done by Dr. Juan Manuel Miñarro, a sculpture professor at the University of Seville, as part of a project sponsored by the Valencia-based Centro Español de Sindonología (CES) (The Spanish Center of Sindonology). The study thus supports what tradition has held for more than two millennia: that the two cloths came from the same historical person, who, according to this tradition, was Jesus of Nazareth."

Modern-day 'Indiana Jones' links Shroud to 1st century - by Jerome R. Corsi, - March 24. 2016 - Here is an excerpt from the article:

"NEW YORK – An archaeological discovery that appears to place the origin of the Shroud of Turin in first century A.D. conflicts with three independent scientifically conducted radiocarbon 14 tests that estimated a date range of A.D. 1260-1390. The shroud is believed by many scholars to be the burial cloth of Jesus Christ. Philip E. Dayvault, a former FBI special agent and physical-science technician who has been studying the Shroud of Turin since 1973, ventured to Turkey on an Indiana Jones-like expedition in 2002. While there, he discovered a small mosaic in a faraway museum maintained by Muslim curators that appears to provide physical corroboration for the existence of the Shroud back in the first century."

Posted June 1, 2016

Our Next Update

I am planning to take some much needed time off during June and July and spend some time with my family. Although I don't know the exact date of the next update, it will probably go online in late August or early September, after I return from speaking at the 50th Annual Jalsa Salana Ahmadiyya Muslim convention in England. (See my article about last year's event at A Personal Report on the 2015 Jalsa Salana Convention). I do know for sure that it will include more issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, the latest papers, books, articles and videos and of course, any breaking Shroud news. To be sure you don't miss any important Shroud information as it occurs, check our STERA, Inc. Facebook page from time to time, since we now try and update it weekly to keep you informed between our regular quarterly website updates. You do not need to have a Facebook account to view our page. You can also join our Website Mailing List and receive an e-mail whenever the site is updated or any important Shroud news breaks. We hope you find this update interesting and useful and look forward to seeing you later this summer!

Barrie Schwortz
President, STERA, Inc.

Posted June 1, 2016

Special Update: Important New Radiocarbon Dating Videos Online! March 19, 2016

For more than two decades, the most hotly debated topic in the Shroud world has been the radiocarbon dating performed on the cloth in 1988 that declared the Shroud a medieval fake. Although substantial scientific data now exists that indicates the sample chosen for dating was anomalous and not representative of the main cloth, most of the world and the media still ignore the massive amount of published science that points to the Shroud's authenticity and accepts instead that single dating test as proof of the Shroud's medieval origin. What very few people know about are the events that occurred behind the scenes that further disqualified the 1988 results. Two new videos that reveal just that are now available online from David Rolfe and Francesca Saracino that deal specifically with those issues and we thought they were important enough to let you know immediately via this Special Update. We have also included a link to a recent BBC radio interview with Dr. Michael Tite, a key player in the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud. As the then Director of Research at the British Museum, he was selected to be the overall supervisor of the entire dating process. We believe you will find these programs informative and enlightening (and perhaps a bit disturbing and frustrating) and hope you will share them with your friends and family.

A Grave Injustice - New Program from director David Rolfe

We are very pleased to announce the Free availability on Vimeo of A Grave Injustice, an important new film directed by our dear friend David Rolfe (director of 1977's BAFTA award winning documentary The Silent Witness) and produced by noted Shroud scholar (and very dear friend) Pam Moon. The program features appearances by such well known Shroud researchers as John Jackson, Bill Meacham, Dr. Robert Bucklin, Ian Wilson, Max Frei, John Klotz, Dr. Paolo Di Lazzaro, Dr. Thomas De Wesselow, Dr. Michael Tite, Prof. Luigi Gonella, Prof. Edward Hall, Prof. Christopher Ramsey, Pam Moon and many more. Below is David's brief description of the 27 minute program although you can get more information and access the program directly via his Shroud Enigma website. I consider this program a "must see!"

"This video reveals how the C14 laboratories that tested the Shroud failed to follow their own protocols to ensure a definitive dating and failed to place their result in the context of this fact and of the weight of other evidence that contradicts it."


Cold Case: The Shroud of Turin directed by Francesca Saracino

Several years ago our dear friend Francesca Saracino produced and directed an Italian language documentary titled, “La Notte della Sindone” (The Night of the Shroud), which took the viewer behind the scenes of the radiocarbon dating. (The film won three awards at the Los Angeles Film Festival for Best Documentary, Best Director and Best Visual Effects and was nominated for Best Documentary at the Hoboken-New York Film Festival). Unfortunately, it did not receive broad distribution because of its controversial nature and was never made available here in the U.S. The good news is that the program has been updated, translated into English and retitled “Cold Case: The Shroud of Turin,” and is now available from Vimeo On Demand for only US$3.00. Once you order the 63 minute video you can watch it for 30 days and view it on a computer as well as iOS, Apple TV, Roku and Chromecast. The program uses previously unpublished documents to take you behind the scenes of the questionable events surrounding the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud and asks the provocative question, “Who’s afraid of the Shroud of Turin?” This is another "must see" program and well worth the price of admission!


BBC Radio Interview with Dr. Michael Tite

Coincidentally, BBC radio recently interviewed Dr. Michael Tite, who in 1988 was Director of Research at the British Museum and the man selected to supervise the three laboratories that were chosen to perform the dating on the Shroud. As he figured prominently in the dating process, we felt we should include this new, nine minute interview in today's update so you can hear Dr. Tite's point of view for yourselves. He appeared on the Witness program in a segment titled, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Turin Shroud." Here is a brief excerpt from the program's online description:

"In 1988, the Church allowed scientists to perform a radiocarbon dating test on a small sample of the shroud. The results are still controversial. Witness speaks to Professor Michael Tite who supervised the testing process."

We hope these new programs will provide further evidence that the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin was poorly performed and resulted in questionable if not totally inaccurate results. In the end, you will have to judge for yourself and make up your own minds. Watch for our Spring Update sometime in May!

Posted March 19, 2016 Celebrates 20 Years Online January 21, 2016! Is Now Mobile Friendly!

There is so much to report in this important update that I'm not sure where to start! Of course, the fact that today marks our 20th anniversary online is certainly the biggest news. Little did I realize when I hit the "send" button on January 21, 1996, that twenty years later that simple act would have altered the entire course of my life and touched the lives of millions of others! However, none of this would be possible without the generous participation of the many historians, scientists, researchers and scholars who have graciously granted us access to their work so that we might share it online and make it available to everyone. Our sincerest thanks to every person, past or present, whose numerous contributions have helped make the Shroud of Turin Website the largest online source of Shroud information on the internet. Most importantly, we want to thank you, our viewers, for your loyalty and support over the years. We are truly grateful to all of you for your continued participation. We could not have done it without you!

But celebrating our 20th anniversary is just the beginning of today's update. Equally important is the fact that over the past six months we recoded all 296 of our html pages to make them fully mobile compliant on tablets and smart phones and are unveiling the new mobile-ready pages in this update. We also reached an important milestone on December 26, 2015, when our total visitors for the year exceeded ONE MILLION! This update also includes eight more issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, the latest issue of the BSTS Newsletter, links to many new papers, books, articles, videos and other Shroud news. On a sadder note, this update also includes memorials for the untimely passing of two important Shroud scholars and friends. Rather than making this introduction a long one, I'll end it here so you can get started.

Here is the Update Table of Contents: Is Now Mobile Friendly! Is Now Mobile Friendly!

If you have been viewing this website on your tablet or smart phone (and about 30% of you have), you know that visiting on your mobile device did not result in the ideal viewing experience. Several years ago we reformatted our Home Page into a modified mobile page and provided it as an alternative, but it was not really very satisfactory (and has been removed in this update). With about 60% of all web traffic now being viewed on mobile devices, it was time for a serious update. However, a complete redesign of the entire website was not possible and not one link could be changed. So instead, we decided to update all 296 of our html pages with code that would adapt and rescale each page to the individual mobile display it was being viewed on but would remain unchanged when viewed on a laptop or desktop computer. Now all that remained was to find someone who could write the code within our modest budget and complete the work in time for this update!

In July 2015, I mentioned this to Russ Breault, a dear friend and member of STERA, Inc.'s Board of Directors, and he urged me to speak with Harrison Gibbs, a young man in the Atlanta, Georgia area that had been working on Russ' websites and videos for several years. Russ warned me not to be too shocked to discover that Harrison was only 17 years old and a senior in high school and he set up a phone meeting for a week later. At the meeting, I was immediately impressed that Harrison had already spent time reviewing the code on all our html pages and had prepared a written proposal for the work that would be necessary to meet our requirements! Frankly, in my 44 year professional career I rarely met anyone so well prepared and professional in their demeanor and approach. So I hired him immediately! Today you see the results of his efforts, particularly if you are reading this on a smart phone or tablet. We have carefully reviewed every page to make sure it is perfect on any display, but like any other complex process, we might have overlooked something somewhere. If you find any problems on any of our pages, please send us an e-mail with the page name, the specific device you are viewing with and a detailed description of the problem you enountered. We will do our best to correct it promptly.

Over the past six months I have worked closely with Harrison in refining, reviewing and finalizing all the new pages and am thrilled by his dedication, his knowledge and his meticulous efforts. It is a true pleasure to work with him. And of course, the results speak for themselves! It is truly wonderful to see our pages properly displayed on every mobile device! If you have a project that needs a serious computer professional, you can contact Harrison directly via his website, Harrison Gibbs Computer Services. I can wholeheartedly recommend him! Thank you Harrison for a job well done!

Posted January 21, 2016

1,014,888 Visitors in 2015!

1,014,888 Visitors in 2015! (Click to see details)

On December 26, 2015 we received a very welcome Christmas present when our visitors for the year surpassed the ONE MILLION mark! Our final total for 2015 was 1,014,888 (up 75,000 from the previous year) and averaged 2780 visitors per day or nearly 85,000 visitors per month. Our visitors generated over 19 million hits, viewed 16.7 million files, viewed over 2.5 million pages and generated 907 GB of bandwidth! You can see the details for yourself by clicking on the above graphic. It seems very fitting to reach this milestone while celebrating our 20th anniversary and we thank you, our loyal viewers, for your continued participation and support!

Posted January 21, 2016

In Memoriam

Fr. Hector Guerra, L.C.
1953 - 2015

It is with great sadness that I must report the untimely passing of our dear friend and colleague, Fr. Hector Guerra, L.C., who passed away in Madrid, Spain, on December 11, 2015 after a long and courageous battle with cancer. Fr. Guerra was not well known to most of the Shroud world, but worked tirelessly behind the scenes to promote the Shroud internationally. He was at least in part responsible for the 2011 Encounter of the Two Linens in Mexico City, the 2012 CES Conference in Valencia, the 2013 TEDx ViadellaConciliazione Conference in the Vatican, the 2013 Third Encounter of the Two Linens Conference in Jerusalem and many others. He was also responsible for opening Shroud exhibits around the world and was planning more in the future when his health failed.

Beyond that, Fr. Guerra was first and foremost my friend. He actually came to my home in Colorado in 2010 (with Petrus Soons) and we spent three days together discussing Shroud research and the work of STERA, Inc. and this website. After that meeting, I was invited to teach a course on the Shroud at the Pontifical Regina Apostolorum in Rome. His personal efforts opened the door for sincere communications between STERA, Inc. and the authorities in Turin, for which I will be forever grateful. His actions almost singlehandedly fostered the excellent working relationship we enjoy today. That same year we traveled and lectured together in Spain and Germany. In June 2015 he flew in from Madrid to meet with me at the Pontifical Seminary in Rome. After discussing some of his future plans to promote the Shroud, we had a beautiful dinner, said our goodbyes and the next day I flew up to Turin and he flew back to Madrid. As we parted, I gave him a hug, wished him well and told him I would keep him in my prayers. It was the last time I was ever to see him, but I am grateful to have had that final opportunity. His loss will be felt for years to come but his positive influence on worldwide sindonology will last even longer. We extend our deepest sympathies and condolences to his family, friends and all of his Legionary brothers. Rest in Peace my friend.

Barrie Schwortz

Within hours of his passing the Legionaries of Christ website created a Memorial Page where literally hundreds of comments have been posted in Fr. Guerra's memory (many of them in Spanish and Italian). A quick review of the comments on the page indicates just how beloved he was and how important his contributions were to Sindonology. Here are just a few of the many comments we have received from those who knew him:

"Unfortunately, the adventure of earthly Father Hector Guerra ended today in Madrid in the early afternoon and he began his real life next to Christ who Father Hector so loved and served throughout his life. Let us unite in prayer as he has done many times with all of us in front of that face that we still contemplate in the cloth of the Shroud but that he now really already knows, face to face. The best way we have to remember him is to continue his work of evangelization through the spread of the message of the Shroud that he has been able to provide an unrivaled spread worldwide."

Bruno Barberis, President - International Center for the Study of the Shroud - Turin, Italy

"I pray for Padre Hector. I appreciated his humanity and spirit of evangelization about the Shroud during my stay in Jerusalem."

Nello Ballosino, Vice-President - International Center for the Study of the Shroud - Turin, Italy

"We now have a supporter like Father Hector Guerra in the Father's House. Sure you will notice both future research and findings and inspiration to talk about the historical figure of Jesus of Nazareth from the perspective of faith."

Guillermo Heras Moreno - Head of the Investigation Team - Centro Español de Sindonologia - Spain

"I am convinced it will be Father Hector Guerra, who will pray for us to the Almighty and His Holy Mother, inspiring us to continue the work begun. I think the death of Father Hector Guerra is a great loss, but his dedication also serves as a role model for all researchers. This should be a stimulus for us to continue."

Alfonso Sánchez Hermosilla - Director del EDICES - Centro Español de Sindonologia - Spain

"I have just learned that Fr. Guerra passed away. We will pray for him and for us. We hope that he helps us from above to spread further the Shroud message of Love as he did during his lifetime."

Adolfo Orozco Torres, President - Centro Mexicano de Sindonologia - Mexico

"In June, Dalys and I went to Europe to meet with Father Guerra in Madrid, Spain. As you know, we were very good friends and he was my spiritual adviser and we cooperated in realizing many expositions of the Shroud in many places in the world... I am glad that I could introduce him to you in your house in Colorado and that you both clicked from the first moment you met, which resulted in the invitations to come to Rome and give presentations for the course on the Shroud that they had started there. You both had a great respect for each other and he gave a lot of positive feedback about you in Turin and other places. I miss him but I am glad he is not suffering anymore and can now be a guide for all of us in heaven."

Peter and Dalys Soons - Shroud Scholars - Panama

"I met P. Guerra almost from the time of his ordination, nearly 35 years ago, but my relationship with him became closer and closer over the past 10 years. That is when he asked me to collaborate with him on projects on the Shroud, beginning with the permanent exhibition of Rome at the Pontifical Regina Apostolorum (in December 2006). Next was the "Othonia" project dedicated to the study and dissemination of the Shroud, through various initiatives, including several international conferences including the three "Meetings of two linens" (the Holy Shroud and the Virgin of Guadalupe), Rome (2009), Mexico (2011) and Jerusalem (2013), and finally with the Diploma in Sindónicos Studies (since 2009). All this is another example of his initiative, his drive and his apostolic influence in one of several areas in which he displayed his priestly work. Those who had the grace to work with us benefit from his legacy and continue his work. I think it is the best way to honor his memory and thank him for the example he set. Rest in peace, P. Guerra!"

Fr. Rafael Pascual, L.C. - Dean of the Science and Faith Program, Pontifical Regina Apostolorum - Rome, Italy

"This news saddens me, because without Father Guerra and his "communicative energy" we all feel a little more alone. I was struck by the fact that Father Guerra has left us the day before the feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe, for the study of which he was so deeply involved, even organizing several scientific meetings to propose a new season of scientific measurements. Who knows if this coincidence is a sign. I fully share the thought of Bruno: the best way to remember Father Guerra is continuing the action undertaken by him to promote the evangelic potential of the Shroud, including through new studies on the Cloth."

Paolo di Lazzaro - ENEA Researcher - Frascati, Italy

In Memoriam

Avinoam Danin
1939 - 2015

It is with great sadness that I must also report the passing of our dear friend and colleague, Avinoam Danin, noted Israeli botanist and Shroud researcher, on December 12, 2015, in Jerusalem. The news was first posted on Avinoam's Flora of Israel Online website and I was notified the next day by his friend and colleague, Dr. Anthony Brach of the Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Avinoam was well known in the Shroud world for his analysis of the pollens found on the cloth and his somewhat controversial claims of finding many flower images on the Shroud. I know that he was frustrated with me at times for not agreeing with some of his imaging claims, but we always enjoyed a respectful and professional relationship and I always considered him a friend. I last saw him in 2013 at the Notre Dame Center in Jerusalem while attending the Third Conference of the Two Linens and we enjoyed a very cordial dialogue. We extend our deepest sympathies and condolences to his family and friends. Rest in Peace my friend.

Barrie Schwortz

Peter Soons was a close friend of Avinoam's, had met his family in Israel and had worked with him on a number of research projects. He was kind enough to write a memorial/biography for Avinoam and, with the approval of the Danin family, is allowing us to reprint it here in its entirety. We are also including a poignant comment from author Kimberly Ballard who worked with Avinoam during the research and production of her book.

"For the last 44 years the main academic activity of Avinoam Danin has been dedicated to interdisciplinary research involving the identity and distribution of higher plants, microorganisms, other organisms, and their relation to the environment. The results of his investigations on higher plants and their habitats have been published in 5 books and 182 articles in English, 5 books and 247 articles in Hebrew; one book is bilingual, and one in Italian.

"He discovered many plant species that have not been found previously in Israel, Sinai, and Jordan. In addition he described more than 40 taxa new to science, belonging to various families. The study of plant names and their use by the Bedouin in the Negev and Sinai led him to cooperate with biochemists and pharmacognosists in the search for natural chemicals, especially in aromatic plants. This contributes towards the search for potential medicinal plants. Mapping the distribution of plants in Israel in squares of 5 x 5 km enabled him to create a data base from which the flora of Israel was studied and a new phytogeographical map was drawn. It was also used in several forensic investigations. The most recent and important one is detecting the origin of the Shroud of Turin in the vicinity of Jerusalem.

"His involvement with the study of the Shroud started in the early 1980swhen he received a letter from Paul Maloney asking him to do botanical research on the plant images that had been seen on the Shroud. But nothing came of this, until he was visited by Alan and Mary Whanger in September of 1995, who had studied these images. The Whangers determined 28 plant species by comparing the images to 1:1 drawings of plants illustrated in the first three parts of the Flora Palaestina then available. He saw the images they had seen and then found additional ones himself. The conclusions from his botanical research and findings were:

"In 2008 a book interview was done by Father Hector Guerra L.C., that resulted in a book in Italian: "L'uomo della Sindone". It was the first book of the series that followed, the English edition: "Botany of the Shroud" (2010), and the Spanish translation: "Flores y Plantas en la Sabana Santa" (2011). You can see the book cover in the file attached. Avinoam was also involved in the study of the thorns that were kept in different churches in Italy, and that supposedly had belonged to the helmet of thorns of Jesus Christ and to compare them with his findings of the images of thorns on the Shroud.

"Using Avinoam's own words what his investigations of the Shroud meant to him:
"Throughout my years of investigations of the Shroud, I had the pleasure of knowing interesting people and expanding my fields of interest. I lost many hours of sleep as thoughts about the meaning of my findings kept me awake at the oddest hours. I am often asked about my personal feelings concerning the Shroud and what surrounds it. I appreciate the beliefs of Christians around the world and I admire the expression "live and let live". I have gathered much botanical information in my years of research and am happy to share my expertise and its application in Sindonology with those that are interested".

"Avinoam, thanks for all your efforts and rest in peace. You will live on in your work but also in our hearts."

Peter Soons

"...Avinoam was a light to my world. His kindness to me will never be forgotten. His pictures are forever in my book because he became my friend... I am very sad to lose this good friend. My book is more valuable now because Avinoam's beautiful pictures are in it. The last time I talked to Avinoam he was having trouble with his feet, and feeling a bit uncomfortable. So I gave him space to get well. I had hoped that he would come to visit you Barrie, and would travel up this way to meet me at some point. I am sad I will never meet him or be able to ask him anything, or show him just how valuable his work was although I told him it was repeatedly. He seemed to have doubted his importance. He was a blessing to me... God took him to heaven during Hanukkah because he left a legacy of light behind him... I am blessed beyond measure to have had this man as my friend."

Kimberly Ballard - Author
Posted January 21, 2016

Eight More Issues Added to Rex Morgan's Shroud News Archive

Shroud News

We are pleased to present the next eight issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News in today's update, which includes Issue #29, June 1985 through Issue #36, August 1986. They continue to be filled with fascinating historical insights, in-depth content and great reading. Our sincerest thanks to Stephen Jones for volunteering to do all the scanning and optical character recognition, Ian Wilson for providing the original issues and of course, to Rex Morgan for his gracious permission to reprint them here on We will continue to archive the issues until the complete 118 issue collection is available online.

Posted January 21, 2016

BSTS Newsletter December 2015 Issue No. 82 Now Online

BSTS Newsletter No. 82

We are happy to report that the British Society for the Turin Shroud page of the website has been updated and the latest December 2015 Issue No. 82 of the BSTS Newsletter is now online. This issue includes an interesting research article by Hugh Duncan and two research articles that look into invisible weaving and the fire of 1532 by Hugh Farey, the newsletter's Editor. It also includes notices of recent papers and articles, several book reviews, news from around the internet and much more.

Posted January 21, 2016

Dan Porter Retires His Shroud of Turin Blog!

Shroud of Turin Blog

On December 15, 2015, the Shroud world awoke to a major surprise. That day Dan Porter announced he was retiring his Shroud of Turin Blog and ending all comments and posts by the end of the year! I have to admit that this came as a shock to me, since over the past seven years Dan's blog had enjoyed great success in providing a much-needed serious public forum for in-depth discussions about the Shroud. I must also admit that I had somewhat of a love-hate relationship with the blog. There were many excellent articles published and archived on the blog over the years (and we linked to many of them), by many thoughtful and intelligent participants and many of the discussions were insightful, educational and respectful. But there was a somewhat darker side as well, where unprovoked and unnecessary ad hominem personal attacks on unsuspecting (and often deceased) individuals were frequently permitted. In all fairness, I also completely understand how difficult it can be to moderate a public forum where the main topic is one of the most controversial objects on the planet! In the end, there is a very thin line between moderation and censorship and I know Dan did his best to be fair to everyone. And in spite of all that, I still checked the blog several times each day and found myself holding my breath in anticipation as to what new issue might appear next! I will truly miss doing so in the future and want to extend our sincerest thanks to Dan for providing such a great forum over the years. Thankfully, he is leaving all of the contents online and available, so you can still go back and read all the past articles and posts (which I heartily recommend). We send Dan our very best wishes for equally great success in all his future endeavors.

Posted January 21, 2016

Recently Published Papers and Articles

Comments on the Mass Spectrometry Analysis of a Sample of the Shroud of Turin by Bella et al.
By Mario Latendresse

Another large number of Shroud related papers have been published recently, and as always, we have tried to include the most relevant and important ones here (listed with the most recent paper first). However, we are starting with a paper that we originally posted in our November 1, 2015 update, shortly after it was published as an editorial in Thermochimica Acta. It sparked considerable controversy at the time and prompted a number of Shroud scholars to write and submit formal rebuttals to the publication. To make it easier for you, we are repeating our original post from last year, followed by the first of those rebuttals written by Mario Latendresse of the Stanford Research Institute and published in the latest issue of Thermochimica Acta. All have also been permanently archived on the Scientific Papers & Articles page (alphabetically by title) and the Website Library page (alphabetically by author).

The presence of dye in the 1988 radiocarbon date samples of the Shroud of Turin
By Pam Moon

Posted January 21, 2016

Recently Published Books

Recently Published Books

A number of new Shroud related books have been published in recent months. We are listing some of them here but have also permanently archived them all on the Shroud of Turin Booklist page (alphabetically by author), which has just been updated with another 35 titles thanks to our dear friend Emanuela Marinelli. To make it easy to find all the new additions, we have annotated each new listing with "(Added 21 JAN 2016)" so simply search for that phrase on the page.

The Keramion: Lost and Found by Phillip E. Dayvault

This book is scheduled for release in February 2016. Here is a description from the book's website:

"The Shroud of Turin, the traditional burial cloth of Jesus Christ, is either authentic or not. "It is one or the other, there is no middle ground." The Keramion, Lost and Found provides new answers to that centuries-old debate. In 2000, I began a quest for ancient oil lamps in a faraway land, but it soon became an epic Journey to the FACE of GOD...

"..."Buckle up", and come along on this amazing journey. Join my guide and translator, Hafize, and me on this trip of a lifetime. We traversed Turkey in search of ancient oil lamps, but found something much more illuminating. Be advised, though, you may also find something, perhaps, that you have been seeking all your life...the TRUTH!"

Paperback: 322 pages
Publisher: Morgan James Publishing (February 16, 2016)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1630476420
ISBN-13: 978-1630476427

God's Thief by Stefano Battezzati, Ada Grossi and Massimo Ronchi (FICTION)

As we have done on only several occasions in the past, we are including this book, a work of fiction, on our booklist. Like all of our previous exceptions, this book was also written to introduce children to the Shroud, but is wrapped in a fictional story to make it more appealing to younger readers while educating them with accurate scientific information. Here is an online description of the book:

"A mysterious organization asks an international thief to steal nothing less than the Shroud of Turin: so the adventure begins. Science and fiction blend in the plot of this Mystery Novel, written for Kids and Early Teens, until its twist ending."

Kindle Edition: 78 pages
File Size: 18813 KB
Publisher: Mimep Docete (December 20, 2015)
Language: English

Spiritual Encounter With the Shroud: Caspar McCloud Interviews with L.A. Marzulli - Audio book by Caspar McCloud

Here is the online description of the book:

"Caspar McCloud was interviewed by L.A. Marzulli for PP&S magazine in 2013 on the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin. The remarkable supernatural image seen on the Shroud changed McCloud's life forever. He answers the questions many may eventually ask and shares his spiritual encounter, discovery, and insights with you. Come and see for yourself and learn the vital message encoded into the burial cloth of the risen Savior."

Narrated by Caspar McCloud
Length: 1 Hour 15 Minutes
Publisher: Caspar McCloud Ministries, Inc. (December 4, 2015)
Language: English

The Gospels of Resurrection and the Turin Shroud by Giuseppe Micunco

This Italian language book deals in part with the Shroud of Turin. Here is an excerpt from the book's online description:

"...Chs. I, II and III respectively offer a detailed description of three pertaining moments of crucial interest, notably body’s deposition and burial, sepulcher opened up, angelic epiphany with apparition of the Lord himself. Some concluding remarks are given in Ch. IV, where the reconstruction of authored testimonials are also taken into due account. Last,Ch. V is essentially devoted both to the implications of the above analysis for the Turin Shroud and to stress the important role that the supplementary pieces of funeral fabric, often referred to in the book as “minor cloths” also play. Worthy of mention are some unprecedented Shroud-Scripture connections involving Paul’s selected parts and Peter’s First Letter."

228 pages
Publisher: Stilo Editrice (October 2015)
Language: Italian
ISBN-13: 978-88-6479-152-4

La Virgen de Guadalupe y La Sábana Santa: Una investigación de sus analogías by Fernando Ojeda Llanes

Fernando is a long time scholar of the Tilma of the Virgin of Guadalupe and has written several books on the topic This Spanish language book is only currently available directly from the author. Click on either of the above links to send him an e-mail order, making sure to include your shipping address. The book is available for US$20.00 plus the shipping costs, depending on your address. Here is a brief excerpt from the book's back cover:

"On this occasion he presents us with his interesting research showing that the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe and the Shroud, both recognized as "not made by human hands," have extraordinary analogies."

216 pages
Publisher: Ojeda Producciones Publicitarias, S. A. de C.V. (October 2015)
Language: Spanish
ISBN-10: 978-7824-93-0

Luce dal Sepolcro by Emanuela Marinelli and Marco Fasol

This latest Italian language book from Emanuela and her colleague is available in both print and Amazon Kindle versions (see included links). It is also available in a Spanish language edition titled, Luz del Sepulcro. Here is the book's online description (via Google translate with some minor editing):

"Is the Shroud indeed the burial cloth of Jesus, or it is a medieval fake? The Gospels recount actual events, or are they mere legends? The answer to these questions is not secondary, since it deeply involves our lives. Certainly the Shroud is the most studied archaeological find in the world and the Gospels constitute the only key to interpreting it. This link between the Gospels and the Shroud has therefore suggested to the authors to combine the latest scientific research on the Shroud with an investigation equally as scientific and documenting the reliability of the Gospels. Thus to sum up in a single text the results of the natural sciences and the historical ones, short form and with an accessible language, in order to offer a synthesis essential for the modern man who does not want to remain illiterate about the deepest questions."

224 pages
Publisher: Fede & Cultura (February 2015)
Language: Italian
ISBN-13: 9788864093567
ISBN eBook: 9788864093819

Posted January 21, 2016

Online Shroud Videos & Audios

Holy Shroud Guild, past, present, & future - HSG Movies

Videos on the Shroud of Turin by Sébastien Cataldo
(Most in French language)
Posted January 21, 2016

Shroud News from Finland

Bruno Barberis and Mark Guscin speak at the 2012
Savonlinna Exhibition and Seminar - Photo © Juha Hiltunen
(Click for larger view)

I recently received the following e-mail from our good friend Juha Hiltunen, which included information about past and upcoming Shroud Exhbitions in Finland. In addition, he provided us with a link to the 2015 Shroud of Turin Rauma Exhibition website (Finnish language):

"I would like to inform you about the Shroud of Turin exhibition actions in Finland during the last few years. This year 2016, in March, we'll have a Shroud of Turin related exhibition in Helsinki, our capital, at the parish of Roihuvuori. This is very important, since it is the first time it reaches the metropolitan region of our country. The coming exhibition is the 7th in annual succession; previous events were held in Turku in 2010 and 2011, Savonlinna in 2012, Tampere in 2013, Jyväskylä in 2014, and Rauma in 2015. Next year, 2017, it will be in Turku again. The dates of the current exhibition in Helsinki are March 5th - 28th, 2016. Twice, in Savonlinna and Jyväskylä, we have also held seminars, where international experts were invited to speak. Drs. Mark Guscin and Bruno Barberis lectured there in 2012 and Prof. Barberis again with his fellow Italian countryman Dr. Alessandro Piana in 2014. Prof. Bruno Barberis is returning for the next exhibition and speaking at the opening event on the 5th of March.

"All the exhibitions held in Finland have gained relatively wide attention and good space in national media. Feedback of visitors has been generally praising and many got inspiration to learn more about the Shroud and its Biblical connection too. Still, it is a great challenge, especially at the coming exhibition, since the capital city area is the most secular part of Finland and people need to be informed properly so that it could gain optimal attention. We are focusing more on the scientific research of the Shroud and leaving implications in any other direction for each to make freely. My book Valokuva Jeesuksesta? (2009) has been sold out but it is relatively well available in libraries all around the country and I get good feedback from new readers every now and then. The copy of the Shroud which originally came from you via STERA, Inc. in 2010 and has been exhibited since then. It is a remarkably captivating object and resembles the original perfectly. I look forward to this Helsinki exhibition with a good feeling and hopefully it will reach still more people and increase the popularity of the Shroud of Turin in Finland."

Posted January 21, 2016

The Shroud in the Media

Floodwater destroys Eureka author's 34 years of files on Shroud of Turin
St. Louis Post-Dispatch - January 10, 2016

Once again, there have been a number of Shroud stories reported in the media recently and we are including some of the more important ones here:

Posted January 21, 2016

Visit Us On Facebook

STERA, Inc. on Facebook

In case you missed it, STERA, Inc. is on Facebook and we have been updating our page frequently. Although it is not always possible for me to update the website when new items come up on short notice, it is fast and easy for me to post a short message or some important new links on our Facebook page, no matter where I happen to be in the world. So check the page from time to time to see what's new, post a comment and like us to let us know you care!

Posted January 21, 2016

2016 Lecture Schedule

Lecturing at Logansport Juvenile Correctional Facility in Indiana - July 9, 2015

Since viewers often write me asking where and when I might be giving Shroud presentations, I am again including my upcoming schedule in case I happen to be in your area. If so, please drop by and say hello. Also, please understand that as of this writing, the schedule is by no means complete and that many of the times and venues are still not finalized and subject to change. I will do my best to update them prior to the events.

Posted January 21, 2016
Updated May 10, 2016

Our Next Update

As you can see in the above photograph, there is nothing visible in my crystal ball regarding our next website update! Seriously, I do know it will occur in the Spring, probably sometime in May, but a lot depends on my travel and lecture schedule, which is not yet finalized for this year. Although I don't know the exact date, I do know for sure that the next update will include more issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, the latest papers, books, articles and videos and of course, any breaking Shroud news. To be sure you don't miss any important Shroud information as it occurs, check our STERA, Inc. Facebook page from time to time, since we now try and update it weekly to keep you informed between our regular quarterly website updates. You can also join our Website Mailing List and receive an e-mail whenever the site is updated or any important Shroud news breaks. We hope you find this update interesting and useful and look forward to seeing you in the Spring! Thank you all again for helping to make our first 20 years such a great success! It is deeply appreciated.

Barrie Schwortz
President, STERA, Inc.

Posted January 21, 2016

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